Education

Hazardous Effects of Mutations in the DNA

DNA structures are naturally and biologically different in different entities making them unique and different from each other. How all the organisms are different from each other and are identical is just because of the symmetrical sequences of DNA. DNA is the molecule of inheritance and information. It stores instructions for a longer period of time. It has enigmatic symmetry stores genetic instructions which move from one generation to another. DNA carries information about the functioning of entity, has control of the behaviors and determines how their physiology would be.

Mutations in DNA

Mutations in DNA can be the reason for severe diseases of heart, cancer, and blood. Major health issues occur due to mutations which occur inside the DNA or in the sequences of DNA. It affects the functioning of DNA and resultantly there are risks of developing diseases.

Type of Mutations

There are three common types of mutations which affect the transmissions of DNA from parents to offspring. The three types are Substitution, Insertion, and Deletion. In Substitution mutation a single nucleotide base is deleted, inserted, or changed from a sequence of RNA and DNA.  Insertion is a mutation in which a base pair is added in the DNA. Similarly, Deletion mutation is a situation in which a base pair is removed from the DNA.

Diseases

Sickle-cell Anemia

The very first disease that was discovered due to the change in the sequencing of DNA is sickle-cell anemia. It first occurred in the areas of the Mediterranean region and of African; the common thing in this area was that they were affected by malaria. In single mutation, the genes are transmitted but do not affect the health of offspring while if this disease is in both parents then it is transmitted and can affect badly.

Cancer

Although cancer occurs due to different factors having exposure to ultra-violet rays, or smoking, etc. apart from this, it is also caused and transmitted from generations to generations. This occurs due to the variants known as somatic. These affect cells of the human body other than egg or sperm cells.

Somatic variables

Somatic is not heritable and do not pass on to generations and is caused by the environmental factors cigarette smoke or radiations etc.

Germline variables

Germline variables are found on the cells of egg and sperms and are discovered to be transmitted from generations to generations and cause high risks of cancer in the offspring. Germline is very dangerous variable; it can cause cancers of various types.

Diseases of heart

Telomeres are the minute DNA strand present on the chromosomes; they give predictions about the possible risks of having heart diseases.  The white blood cells or leukocytes are measured and the length of telomeres tells about the risk of heart disease. If the telomeres are larger in size then risks of heart diseases are less but if the length is smaller then the rate of occurrences of diseases also increases.

Brain disorders

Brain disorders, commonly known are Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the disorders which can affect the brain and functioning of the brain. These are very serious disorders and dangerous as well as no cure for these disorders are found yet.

Precautions and cures

Being the carrier of information, the analysis and the study of DNA and its structure is of vital importance because it could point out the disease that have the potential of getting transmitted from one person to another or one’s off-springs. If anyone has one of the above diseases or any other disease that has a proven risk of transmission thenĀ it must be checked immediately and treated at the earliest convenience. Some of the diseases related to DNA cannot be transferred to Off-spring and some remain un-active even if they are transferred. Most of the diseases that get transferred can be treated by different ways it required for the affected person to seek out the possible treatment. Alterations on the DNA can be done to repair and cure the affected DNA.

Mutation in the DNA happens by three processes which are substitution, insertion and deletion of base pairs. Expert scientists have long been working on this field to avoid and cure such mutations and some have been successful. There have been some breakthroughs in this field and a lot are expected in the near future. So, a person is advised to seek out every possible option by consulting to their doctors and other experts in the field under discussion.

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