Education

Different types of DNA tests and their purposes

Different types of DNA tests and their purposes

Deoxyribonucleic acid or otherwise known as DNA is the basic genetic material that differentiates one person from the other and one species from the other. Every single living organism whether small such as bacteria and viruses or large such as human beings and other animals have their specific DNA sequences which gives them their unique characteristics.

DNA is the basic and most unique structural entity of a person’s genome which plays a significant role in a person’s existence and well-being. Specific sequences of the DNA base pairs are what make people unique and different from each other. Body shape, health, mindset and other matter important matters such as the color of the eyes and hair are totally dependent upon the genomic material which is DNA.

DNA is present in every single in an organism’s body and chromosomes are the basic structural units of DNA which are arranged in the form of pairs and are uniquely integrated together for every person. The specific arrangement of these chromosomes determines whether a person is going to be male or a female. DNA is a hereditary material which can also be the cause of many diseases such as sickle-cell pneumonia, diabetes, cancer, heart and brain disorders, etc. These properties are transferred to a person from the ancestral lines for example from a father and mother to their off-springs.

There are tests available that study these specific characteristics of a person’s ancestral line and can determine a lot about that person’s life.

DNA tests

The different DNA tests explore a specific location in a person’s genome and they have gotten widespread acceptability. These tests are done for genealogical purposes and can tell a lot about a person’s ancestors and his own personality.

Types of DNA tests

There are three different types of DNA tests that are performed for different purposes.

  1. Autosomal DNA testing
  2. Y-Chromosome DNA Testing
  3. mtDNA testing

In this context, we are going to take a look at each of the above tests, their procedures and their findings.

Autosomal DNA testing

Autosomal DNA testing means taking a look at the chromosomes pair from 1-22 and X-chromosome. These chromosomes are called autosomal chromosomes and can be important in providing information about a person’s ethnicity and other related matters.

Procedure

The test is started by taking a DNA sample from the person whose DNA is to be tested. This sample can be taken from any part of the body and does not require and blood sample or any other painful infestation. To take a sample, all you have to is provide the Buccal swab to the service providers and they will proceed it further.

This DNA is sample is used to take a precise look at the autosomal chromosomes which are inherited from both parents, grand and great-grandparents.

Findings

The findings of this test can interpret the results for three or more than three generations. This test takes a look at the sample DNA and other DNAs that present in the database. The results are compared and if the two samples show similar structural properties, they are most likely to be relatives. Every person whether male or female receives an X-chromosome from both parents and only fathers can transfer the second X-chromosome and as a result of this chromosome pairing a girl is born.

mtDNA (Mitochondrial) testing

The DNA material present in the Mitochondria, which is an important component of a cell, is known as Mitochondrial DNA. This test is focused on the DNA present in Mitochondria which is transferred from mother to child.

Procedure

This test is performed by taking a sample in the same way as above and the test is carried out in a different way from the above. Different regions of the mtDNA such as HRV1 and HRV2 are tested and the results are compared with the results of other individuals.

Findings

As the mtDNA is transferred from mother to her offspring, this test can provide information about the maternal line. This test is focused on finding the ancestry line and can connect the results to about 50 generations if the genome is matched.

Y-DNA (Y chromosome) testing

This test focuses on the Y chromosome of the human genome and can only tell about the paternal ancestry line of the test taker.

Procedure

After taking a buccal swab, Y chromosome of the person is tested and different markers such as STRs and SNPs are examined in order to give the final results.

Findings

As Y chromosome is inherited from father to son, this test can only tell about the paternal line of a child. This test gives information about the most recent ancestors and can extend to generations in the paternal line.

The DNA testing can be used in a number of ways such as estimating ethnicity, finding ancestors, genealogical research, and in many other crime-related matters.

Education

Hazardous Effects of Mutations in the DNA

DNA structures are naturally and biologically different in different entities making them unique and different from each other. How all the organisms are different from each other and are identical is just because of the symmetrical sequences of DNA. DNA is the molecule of inheritance and information. It stores instructions for a longer period of time. It has enigmatic symmetry stores genetic instructions which move from one generation to another. DNA carries information about the functioning of entity, has control of the behaviors and determines how their physiology would be.

Mutations in DNA

Mutations in DNA can be the reason for severe diseases of heart, cancer, and blood. Major health issues occur due to mutations which occur inside the DNA or in the sequences of DNA. It affects the functioning of DNA and resultantly there are risks of developing diseases.

Type of Mutations

There are three common types of mutations which affect the transmissions of DNA from parents to offspring. The three types are Substitution, Insertion, and Deletion. In Substitution mutation a single nucleotide base is deleted, inserted, or changed from a sequence of RNA and DNA.  Insertion is a mutation in which a base pair is added in the DNA. Similarly, Deletion mutation is a situation in which a base pair is removed from the DNA.

Diseases

Sickle-cell Anemia

The very first disease that was discovered due to the change in the sequencing of DNA is sickle-cell anemia. It first occurred in the areas of the Mediterranean region and of African; the common thing in this area was that they were affected by malaria. In single mutation, the genes are transmitted but do not affect the health of offspring while if this disease is in both parents then it is transmitted and can affect badly.

Cancer

Although cancer occurs due to different factors having exposure to ultra-violet rays, or smoking, etc. apart from this, it is also caused and transmitted from generations to generations. This occurs due to the variants known as somatic. These affect cells of the human body other than egg or sperm cells.

Somatic variables

Somatic is not heritable and do not pass on to generations and is caused by the environmental factors cigarette smoke or radiations etc.

Germline variables

Germline variables are found on the cells of egg and sperms and are discovered to be transmitted from generations to generations and cause high risks of cancer in the offspring. Germline is very dangerous variable; it can cause cancers of various types.

Diseases of heart

Telomeres are the minute DNA strand present on the chromosomes; they give predictions about the possible risks of having heart diseases.  The white blood cells or leukocytes are measured and the length of telomeres tells about the risk of heart disease. If the telomeres are larger in size then risks of heart diseases are less but if the length is smaller then the rate of occurrences of diseases also increases.

Brain disorders

Brain disorders, commonly known are Parkinson’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the disorders which can affect the brain and functioning of the brain. These are very serious disorders and dangerous as well as no cure for these disorders are found yet.

Precautions and cures

Being the carrier of information, the analysis and the study of DNA and its structure is of vital importance because it could point out the disease that have the potential of getting transmitted from one person to another or one’s off-springs. If anyone has one of the above diseases or any other disease that has a proven risk of transmission then it must be checked immediately and treated at the earliest convenience. Some of the diseases related to DNA cannot be transferred to Off-spring and some remain un-active even if they are transferred. Most of the diseases that get transferred can be treated by different ways it required for the affected person to seek out the possible treatment. Alterations on the DNA can be done to repair and cure the affected DNA.

Mutation in the DNA happens by three processes which are substitution, insertion and deletion of base pairs. Expert scientists have long been working on this field to avoid and cure such mutations and some have been successful. There have been some breakthroughs in this field and a lot are expected in the near future. So, a person is advised to seek out every possible option by consulting to their doctors and other experts in the field under discussion.

Health

Different Face-Lift Methods To Gain a Youthful Appearance

There are various ways to look young using face-lifting techniques. It can be done surgically with the help of a plastic surgeon, or naturally, with the help of face lifting creams or even with the help of exercises. The muscles in human body start losing its elasticity making it wrinkled and saggy. Thus, people use many face-lifting methods to regain back their clear and youthful skin.

Surgically

Surgical face lift makes the skin smoother, attractive, firmly toned, etc. While choosing a plastic surgeon, one should be very cautious. It is essential to know about the training received by them, the schools attended by them, if they have a board certification or not, how long have they been in the field of face-lifting, how many failures they have had etc as a wrong surgeon can damage the entire appearance. North West Independent Hospital have good plastic surgeons that use surgical procedures and techniques to get rid of aging in a careful manner and lax skin. This leaves behind a natural looking skin; in-fact it can even make one look young.

Naturally

Maintain a proper diet is extremely vital. It is recommended to consume foods that have high content of Vitamin C, Vitamin D and Vitamin E as these are very good for the skin. Additionally, consuming more fruits, nuts, coconut water and adequate amount of water is also suggested. Usually, drinking 8 to 10- glasses of water regularly helps very much. Water consumption helps the body to get rid of toxins, thus giving a youthful appearance.

One should lessen the amount of caffeine consumption and even alcohol and smoking. The face should be washed at-least 3 to 4 times every single day. A branded cleanser should be used every time after removing make up and a good quality night cream should be used before going to sleep every night. Moreover, changing brands is not good for the skin. So sticking on to one brand and continue using the same is also quite important. Most importantly, getting a peaceful night’s sleep is highly advisable.

Face lifting creams

In today’s date, it is difficult to choose a particular cream and claim that to be the best one, as there are numerous number of creams available in the market. Moreover, the appealing advertisement commercials and marketing that are done by the brands makes the job even more difficult. So the best way to choose a face lift cream is to read the ingredients it has. Ideally, a good face lifting cream should have Cynergy TK Protein complex or enzyme fusion; the specially developed form of CoQ10, known as Nano-Lipobelle H-EQ10; grape seed oil; Phytessence Wakame kelp extract. The presence of all these ingredients together help to alleviate the production of elastin and collagen. As a matter of fact, these components also prevent the loss of elastin, collagen as well as hyaluronic acid. Any cream containing these ingredients are safe to use and additionally will also help in providing sufficient amount antioxidants to the face, thus leaving it wrinkle free and healthy. At the same time, the creams would also ensure to make the face firmer, smoother and fuller, thus making one look young.

Exercises

Exercises for face lifting helps to stimulate and strengthen all the 57 muscles of the face as well as the neck, which would result in a natural face lift. All the exercise should be combined with deep breathing to oxygenate the skin. The exercises help to regenerate production of new collagen, skin cells, elastin for gaining a youthful appearance. It is advisable to do the exercises for only 3 minutes every single day. Many people prefer to rely on the natural exercises to obtain young look. However, it is important to gain knowledge about the exercises from a professional trainer.

Apart from the aforementioned methods, even doing regular yoga and meditation is really effective. It is also advisable to avoid the sun by using sunglasses and umbrellas as the sun’s radiation is quite responsible for causing damage and wrinkle to the skin. Using creams that contain amino acids is also recommended to help the skin remain elastic and maintain its collagen levels.

Therefore, in order to gain a more youthful appearance through a face lift, the above mentioned procedures need to be followed for immediate effective outcomes.

Health

About Colpermin IBS Relief Treatment

While irritable bowel syndrome is not life threatening, it sure is inconvenient enough to make your day-to-day life not only painful, but also miserable to some extent. Those who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome often experience feelings of tiredness, nausea, various pains in their body, including in the back, the abdomen, the muscles and the joints, without forgetting a feeling of being unable to empty your bowels. If you are experiencing these symptoms then you should either check with a doctor or use an online diagnostic tool in order to establish beyond doubt that you have IBS; various illnesses have symptoms similar to IBS, and improperly diagnosing yourself may result in you wasting time on a treatment that does nothing for you.

It is true that there are various ways to treat irritable bowel syndrome, but the fact is that most, if not all of those methods take time before they start to show actual results… meanwhile, you need to find a way to take care of your symptoms, and that’s where the Colpermin IBS Relief Treatment comes into play.

I came to learn about Colpermin a few a days ago when reading a health newsletter I receive every week which discusses the latest advancements and progresses in medicine. As it happens, Colpermin uses a very simple and ingenious system to help you deal with IBS symptoms which make life complicated for you: a capsule with slow-release gel and peppermint oil inside of it.

Once you swallow the capsule, all you need to do is wait as it makes its way down through your intestines, releasing the peppermint oil. Once it has been released, the oil sticks to your bowel walls, providing instant relief: the abdominal aches and pains disappear, not to mention that there are no more spasms for you to worry about. All you need to do is simply take one capsule three times a day and you will be able to go on with your life as if you were completely healthy.

Health

What are the Health Benefits of Flowers

Flowers are not only used for beautification but they also lift our spirits through their aroma and beauty. For thousands of years, flowers have been used as powerful remedies for combating with many health challenges from heart failure to broken bones. Many people are puzzled on what the health benefits of flowers are. The flowers turn things around in ways you can’t possibly think of.

Mental and Emotional benefits 

Flowers have been proven to have a positive effect on moods, which are a long-term benefit, this being the reason behind why flowers are delivered to patients in hospitals. They give a less depressed feeling and also they demonstrate satisfaction in life and a higher sense of enjoyment. Flowers affect individuals social behavior in a positive manner far beyond what can be possibly imagined. This is actually a natural way on how to trigger heightened feelings of life satisfaction. The study reveals that people who view fresh flowers especially in the morning have lower levels of depression and anxiety. Actually, women who regularly preserve flowers in their homes feel less anxious and view life positively. Employees who have flowers in their workplace have more enthusiasm and energy at work compared those who have none in their working environment. Flowers have a positive impact on one’s well-being. They chase away blues and worries.

Medicinal benefits

For many generations, flowers have been used for their healing properties to cure many diseases. In aromatherapy, flower essences are dissolved in oil and applied externally to stimulate and calm the mind and body. Certain flowers are used to stimulate certain body functions. Below are three flowers that have curative properties.

1. Rose flowers

The fragrance of rose is used in aromatherapy for increasing good mood and as a tranquilizer. Makeup mask of rose flower is ideal for balancing the level of greasy skin and strengthen dry skin on the face. Additionally, rose can be used to clear acne. This can be prepared by drying the rose flower, grinding it into powder and then mixing it with water. The mixture is then applied on the face. Its essential oil is ideal for anti-depression and aromatherapy. Research has shown that the aroma in the rose flower is effective for increasing the activity of the brain when sleeping. This answers the question why rose is the most common flower used as perfume fragrance.

Rose water, rose oil and rose hip are derived from this flower and they have many valuable properties. This flower plays a large role to dry, sensitive and aging skins. The aroma of this flower provides psychological state of the mind and a soothing property to the nerves. It has health benefits to people suffering from heart, peptic ulcers, and nerve tension among other diseases brought about by stress. Digestion, bile secretion, circulation and womb disorder can be positively be influenced by rose essence. Rose hip, which is rose flower with swollen seed, is an excellent source of vitamins A, B3, C, D and E. In additional it contains zinc, malic acid, fructose, citric acid, flavonoids and bioflavonoids.

2. Lavender flowers

This flower has many health uses and natural healing benefits. Adding a few petals of this flower or its oil to a hot bath ease tire muscles and promotes relaxation. Lavenders also assist you to sleep better. Do not be surprised next time when you find lavender flowers tied in a small pillowcase in your hotel room. If you have issues with your skin like battling with acne, lavender is the perfect option for you. Its oil can be added to your spray water bottle or moisturizer. Cuts and scrapes can be cured with lavender because of its natural antiseptic properties. Instead of rubbing alcohol on your children’s cut you can apply lavender natural oil. Headaches can be relieved by massaging lavender on the forehead, behind the neck and at the temples. The experienced dizziness will disappear within seconds. This flower is also used as a medicine for insomnia.

3. Chamomile flowers

For many years chamomile has been used as medicine. Taken in tea, it calms anxiety and headaches, indigestions and stomach cramps. Breathing in the steam of hot tea of chamomile eases breathing sinusitis and colds. Feelings of anxiety, nervousness and depression can be soothed and calmed using chamomile tea. This flower can be used to enhance the production of white blood cells through consuming tea prepared by this herbal flower. Visit Reids Florists website to view an amazing array of fresh flowers.

Education

DNA and genetic engineering

Where would we be without our present knowledge of DNA? It was first isolated in 1869, but we have only begun to explore and harness its possibilities. And among those possibilities is genetic engineering. Instead of the traditional methods of plant and animal breeding, genetic engineering involves the use of recombinant DNA, which is artificial DNA made by combining sequences that don’t occur naturally.

Genetic engineering has given us many benefits. It has enabled scientists to produce crops that resist diseases better, and aspens that produce less lignin, a complex compound that comes from wood and which has to be removed before the wood can be made into paper; among other things. Some have proposed using engineering to improve the crops for people in undeveloped countries so they get bigger and produce more vitamins.

Two Harvard University scientists have engineered a mouse known by the trade name of OncoMouse, which they used for experiments in research on cancer. Some animal rights activists object to animals being used this way, but animals cannot be said to have rights. Others point out that any conclusions derived from experiments with mice should be approached with caution, because mice are different from humans. Scientists are also using genetically engineered animals to find out what effects genetic changes have on an animal’s characteristics. Transgenetic goats have been created to produce a protein that prevents clotting.

Of course, genetic engineering has produced much controversy, much of it involving questions of ethics. Some writers have predicted that genetically engineered human beings will be made into virtually soulless machines; Aldous Huxley expressed such ideas in his novel ‘Brave New World,’ and discussed the idea further in ‘Brave New World Revisited.’ Others criticize the whole notion as heretical ? in other words, as human beings attempting to play God. Still others feel that there are too many risks involved in tinkering with the natural way of things.

Whatever some people think, there can be no doubt that genetic engineering is a field that will continue to grow. And only God knows what direction that growth will take us in.